1. Allusion: A figure of speech in which an author refers an event, other literary piece, or place by passing reference.
“’A mortal, Frodo, who keeps one of the Great Rings, does not die, but he does not grow or obtain more life, he merely continues, until at last every minute is a weariness’ (Fellowship of the Ring, 46).”
This is spoken by Gandalf when he is teaching Frodo about the history of the rings of power. I believe this to be an allusion to a future event in Frodo’s destiny. It seems that he is referring to what Frodo might possibly go through, as though he is mentally preparing the hobbit for what evil is to come. The audience can read this and feel a pull to know more about how the ring’s power works and how Frodo will handle such a burden.
2. Imagery: The author uses words and phrases to create a mental image for the audience.
“The hobbits sat in shadow by the wayside. Before long the Elves came down the lane towards the valley. They passed slowly, and the hobbits could see the starlight glimmering on their hair and in their eyes. They bore no lights, yet as they walked a shimmer, like the light of the moon above the rim of the hills before it rises, seemed to fall about their feet. They were now silent, and as the last Elf passed he turned and looked towards the hobbits and laughed (Fellowship of the Ring, 78).
This is a general description of the elves as the hobbits make their way to Crickethollow. The words that Tolkien uses to show how the Elves have an aura about them creates an image in the mind of ethereal beings. It is easy to imagine the gracefulness of their strides and haunting presence in the moonlight. Tolkien does an amazing job of painting a mental picture for the audience for such essential characters in the story so far.
3. Foreshadowing/Synecdoche: Alluding to future events through indicative words and phrases/ using a part or fraction of one thing to describe the whole thing.
“The Road goes ever on and on Down from the door where it began. Now far ahead the Road has gone, And I must follow, if I can, Pursuing it with eager feet, Until it joins some larger way Where many paths and errands meet. And whither then? I cannot say. (Fellowship of the Ring, 35).
This is a poem sung by Bilbo as he makes he way out of the Shire and particularly his town. The audience can perceive this as a foreshadowing of what may lie ahead for Frodo. The poem itself sounds just like the plot of Frodo’s destiny and it intrigues the audience to ask questions such as: What similar road will Frodo travel? Who will he meet along the way? The “pursuing it with eager feet” quote is almost ironic because the hobbits seem to be tired of walking early on in the journey but they still pursue the goal to destroy the ring with as much vigor as ever.